ابن النفيس: هو علاء الدين أبو الحسن، ويُعرف باسم ابن النفيس الدمشقي. ولد في قرية قرش قرب دمشق عام 1210 م، وانتقل إلى مصر عام 1236 م، حيث عمل ككبير أطباء مستشفى المنصور. وكتب عدة كتب في الطب، أحدها كتابه المشهور شرح تشريح القانون الذي وصف فيه الدورة الدموية الصغرى.
Ibn Nafis is one of the most acclaimed physicians in the 7 Hajeria century (1210 A.D.) that in addition th to medicine had expert ideas in syntax, logic and Islamic sciences. His theory on pulmonary blood circulation has challenged many scientists regarding the first person who discovered pulmonary blood circulation. In this descriptive study, an attempt was made to gain access to reliable sources for investigating various opinions regarding the earliest discovery of pulmonary blood circulation. In so doing, through the application of appropriate key words to library and on-line search, reliable data were gathered for answering the central question of this study. Based on the theories of Ibn Nafis on pulmonary blood circulation, the movement of blood initiates from the right ventricle and through pulmonary artery, it flows to the lungs. Then through pulmonary veins it circulates back to the left ventricle. Ibn Nafis, for the first time throughout the history of medicine, in addition to describing blood circulation, stated that blood is refined in the lungs. This idea was proposed three centuries before William Harvey could announce its discovery. Thus the primary discoverer of pulmonary blood circulation is Ibn Nafis and his theories have affected what has been proposed after him. In conclusion, Noticing his precise descriptions of pulmonary blood circulation three centuries before Harvey, Ibn Nafis can be named the primary discoverer of pulmonary blood circulation. However, Arabs and Muslims’ insufficient attention to their scientific legacy have paved the way for some Western scientists to name many of their invaluable and groundbreaking theories after themselves.